Chiếu trong Văn học là gì?

The most detailed and easy-to-understand answer to the question: “What is screening in literature?” along with the reference knowledge compiled by Top Solutions is a very good and useful document to help students review and integrate. Accumulate knowledge of Literature 8

Answer the question: What is Projection in Literature?

Chieu is a form of literature originating from China, used by the king to issue orders to his subjects. This type of writing is sometimes called a letter or an edict. In Vietnam, the projection form has also existed for a long time (the same type as the order, the order, and the regime).

The mat can be written in rhyme, prose, or prose. The decree to move the capital by Ly Thai To and the sage request of Le Thai To were written in prose.

Extensive Knowledge of Projection in Literature

1. Overview of the appearance of “projection”

– Administrative documents are an indispensable part of the political life of a country. They are associated with the official activities of the state, showing the attention of leaders in all aspects of society. And in the medieval administrative writing system, projection was a type of text of essential importance.

– Appearing and developing in feudalism, mat is a type of administrative document that plays a huge role. In all dynasties, in all periods, the mat has always been considered as one of the most important types of administrative documents, because it directly expresses the orders, opinions, and thoughts of the king. widely distributed to the subjects and the people. But on the other hand, this is also an important literary genre born in ancient times. In Vietnam, mat also appeared relatively early and was recorded quite a lot in history books. In particular, the two major histories of Vietnam, Dai Viet Su Ky Toan Thu and Dai Nam Thuc Luc, were compiled by the National History of the Nguyen Dynasty. However, up to now, there has not been a work to study deeply and systematically the projection documents of Vietnam.

The sage mat of Ngo Thi Nham

To come up with a unified concept of projection, we first went through dictionaries:

+ In the Official Etymology of the Minutes of Concord, Volume 1, Trade Deals Press Release, 1947, page 1376, one of the definitions of mat is as follows: 詔 , 詔書也 . . . Qin Han is a posthumous son of heaven. Han Shu: “His Majesty waved Duc Yin, Ha Minh Chieu” means: Chieu means the letter. In the past, when the people above gave orders to the people below, they were called mats. From the Qin Han dynasty, only after using this word for the son of heaven did this word come back. The Book of the Hanshu: “Your Majesty opens virtue, lowers radiance”.

+ To make this definition clearer, also in the book Etymology of the upper boundary, we would like to quote the definition of the letter as follows: 詔書, 舊制也 . , .独斷 : “帝之下書有四 .三曰詔書” (Chief of the Emperor, the former imperial court. The national government announced that the people wrote the letter of the imperial court, and the emperor only wore the letter. Single passage: “The emperor’s letter of the imperial court, the third was the letter of the letter of the emperor”). is: Projection mail is the old system. The major affairs that are announced to the people are called letters, using hard gold thread and black ink to write. The Book of Singles says: “There are four things in the letter the king sent down to the people, three of which are called the letter of order”.

Xem thêm bài viết hay:  Âm vị là gì? Ví dụ về âm vị trong tiếng việt

+ In Tu Hai, the version, volume 1 of the entire series, republished by the Chinese Shu Department in 1948, page 1241, the word “chiem” also has many meanings, including one as follows: 詔 , 詔書也 .史記秦始皇紀 : “命為制 , 令為詔 , 漢書董仲舒傳 : “陛下登德音 , 下明詔” , Chinese book “Dong Trong Thu story: “His Majesty emits virtues, lowers brightness”), which means: “Chief, that is, check letter. Qin Shi Huang’s copy of the book of History: “Destiny is a regime, an order is a mat.” The Book of Han Shu: “His Majesty opens virtue, lowers the illuminator”.

+ And also in this Tu Hai book, the word projection letter is defined as follows: 皇帝布告臣民之書曰詔書 .獨斷 : “帝之下書有四 , 三曰詔書 , 詔書者 , 詔告也.The emperor announced to the people to write a letter of decree. Single paragraph: Emperor chi ha right fourth, tam wrote a letter, a fake letter, and a wild card), that is: the letter the king sent down to the people has 4 things, then the three are called a letter, and a letter is a check. fox.

– Through two large dictionaries, Etymology and Tu Hai above, we can see that the word projection does not have a specific definition, but it is only grouped together in the letter of approval, given by the superior to the lower, by Hoang. Emperor announced to the god gradually national affairs.

– In the Chinese great dictionary published in 1968 by the Institute of Chinese Culture, pp. 36182.1 – 36187.7, the word projection includes 13 meanings, one of which is as follows: 詔 , 天子 之詔令 , 王言曰詔 ,皇后太子曰令 (Chieu, Thien Son Chi decreed, Wang Yan wrote the decree, the crown prince wrote the order), meaning: Chieu, that is, the decree of the Son of Heaven. The king’s words are the decree, and the words of the queen and the crown prince are orders.

– According to the Vietnamese Great Dictionary, a mat is a document that the king gave his subjects to know some of the state’s policies, written in the style of the four continents, each sentence broken into two paragraphs four – six or six – four and there is an opposite in each pair of sentences [362,20]

– According to the Literary Dictionary (new series), edict is a literary form of China and many Eastern countries in ancient times, used to collectively refer to the written orders issued by the king to his subjects, covering the literary genres of books, mats, orders, orders, regimes, foxes… which are not uniform in terms of genres as well as names.

– In Ly – Tran poetry from genre, Education Publishing House, 1996, author Nguyen Pham Hung gave the definition of projection as follows:

“Chief is a kind of administrative document of the court to announce to the people in the country and perform tasks or issues related to the life of the nation, nation, and dynasty.”

From the above concepts, we can give a general definition for the document as follows: The document is an administrative document of the centrality in the medieval period, in order to announce to the gods gradually in the country to know and implement. tasks or problems related to national, ethnic, and dynastic life and are often written in quaternary style, each sentence is broken into two paragraphs four – six or six – four, with opposites. in each pair of sentences.

2. History of formation and development of projection text

– The mat is a special type of administrative document that has appeared in China since ancient times and was transmitted to Eastern countries under the influence of Han culture, including Vietnam. The reason is special because it is one of the most important types of administrative documents of the state that was born a long time ago, and existed during the feudal period.

Xem thêm bài viết hay:  Chiếm trọn Spotlight là gì?

– In the work of Chinese cultural history, quoted by author Nguyen Pham Hung in the book Ly – Tran literature viewed from genre, Dam Gia Kien wrote about the origin of the document as follows: Chieu is “the fox of the dynasty” The family promulgation is called the decree, derived from the fox in the Thuong Thu, called the order in the Spring and Autumn period, and the order in the Warring States period. After the unification of Qin, the order was changed to a regime, and the order was changed to a mat. At the beginning of the Han Dynasty, the destiny was divided into four types, categories, and different uses. The mat is a fox to the centurion…” Thus, the mat was originally derived from the fox in the Thuong Thu book, called the decree, went through different names, until the Qin dynasty, the new name was called mat as it is today. . In fact, it is an administrative document of the court to announce to the subjects and perform tasks related to social, national and royal life.

– Chieu is from Sino-Vietnamese. In China, this term in the sense mentioned above began to be used from the time of Qin Shi Huang (221 BC). In the history of Vietnam, the first dioramas were recorded in the annals from the Early Le Dynasty (A.D. 1000). Famous edicts of Vietnamese feudal dynasties can be mentioned such as: The decree to move the capital of King Ly Thai To (Ly Cong Uan) in 1010 decided to move the capital from Hoa Lu to Thang Long, opening a new era. new development period in Vietnamese history; Chieu Can Vuong in 1885 by King Ham Nghi and the warring faction in the Nguyen court led by Ton That Thuyet called on the people to rebel against the French.

[ĐÚNG NHẤT]  What is Projection in Literature?  (photo 2)The capital move of Ly Cong Uan

– Mat is not only within the scope of administrative documents of the Middle Ages, but also a genre that has made many contributions to the literature of each country during this period. It is a high-functioning literary genre that serves to communicate objectively. Depending on each dynasty, each specific period, the projection text has its own characteristics suitable for each dynasty, each specific period, but the projection text has its own characteristics suitable for each dynasty, each period. that period. But basically, the characteristic of this genre, in terms of content, is the order of kings to their subjects; In terms of form, it is the popular application of expressions of ancient prose, prose, prose, and even prose, of which the most popular is the literary form. The words used in the document are also very diverse and rich. This is in line with the intended use of the document: both to ensure scholarly and universality, because it must be understood by all classes of people.

– Ancient literary theorists consider projection as an important literary form. In 文心雕龍 Van Tam Dieu Long, Luu Hiep 劉勰 ranked Thien Chieu Book 詔策 in the 19th. He wrote: “唯詔 策乎軒轅 唐虞 同稱為命 …降及七國並稱曰令, 秦改令為詔 … 古之詔詞 皆用散文, 故能深厚, 爾雅, 感動乎人 (Only there is a book on the lake of Hien Vien, Duong, and Ngu are called destiny, and when they come to visit seven kingdoms, they call them the name of life. Qin reformed the order of the vi-project… Co-reported from the literary use of the literary works, profound efforts, elegant ears, touching tigers). Only in the times of Xuan Vien, Tang, and Ngu, it was called a decree… if it was given to 7 countries, it would be called an order. Later, Qin changed the order to become a mat… The ancient projections were all used in prose, therefore. deep meaning, elegant, touching people…”

Xem thêm bài viết hay:  Biểu hiện rõ nhất của quy luật đai cao là gì?

– Projection belongs to the type of community communication, taking the majority as the object. Of course, in some cases, the king can grant a private will to certain people. But basically, it was still the communication between the king and his subjects, between the feudal court and the people, between the ruled and the ruling class.

– The existence of projection literature is closely related to the existence of feudal dynasties, therefore, when the feudal system collapses, this type of administrative literature will no longer have a reason to exist.

3. Projected text system in Vietnamese history

In order to somewhat reproduce the most general appearance of the Vietnamese projection text system, we conducted a survey and filtered the slides spanning major historical periods in two reliable major histories (Dai Viet History of the Complete Book and Dai Nam Thuc Luc) as well as a number of other sources (Nguyen Trai Toan, Collection of Vietnamese Literature, Ly Tran Poetry). We have tabulated the number of screenings in the historical periods of Vietnam below.

Statistical table of the number of screenings of different periods in Vietnamese history


Name of the source material

Number of projections





first Dai Viet history book 24 23 56 0 2 Dai Nam Shi Luc 0 0 0 191 3 Nguyen Trai full episode 0 0 6 0 4 Vietnam Literature Collection 0 0 0 0 5 Ly Tran’s poetry 6 0 0 0 Total 30 23 56 191

Based on the above table we can come to a few observations:

– Spanning the Middle Ages, every era has projection texts. Song Nguyen is the period with the largest number of projected documents. That can be completely explained by objective reasons about time, climate, war as well as human consciousness that the number of screenings of the Ly, Tran, and Le dynasties has been greatly diminished.

– Through the survey, we found that the projection documents are getting more and more complete, gradually reaching the stability for this kind of official administrative literature.

– Thus, through the overview of the projection situation of Vietnam through the periods, we see that the projection is an official administrative document that appeared from ancient times in China, coexisting with the development of the feudal dynasties. ants.

– When the Vietnamese feudal system was formed, the projection documents were also immediately selected and used. Currently, the earliest slide is identified as Thien Do Mat by Ly Cong Uan composed in 1010 and the last one is the Abdication of Emperor Bao Dai (August 1945). This final projection also marks the permanent end of the role of the projection text in the long-standing Vietnamese feudal system.

Nhớ để nguồn bài viết: Chiếu trong Văn học là gì? của website Trường THCS – THPT Âu Lạc

Viết một bình luận